Social and natural resources
History and culture
The first knowledge of the Yamal land and the indigenous peoples that have been living on this land from time immemorial - the Nenets and the Khanty - dates back to XI century. However, the Novgorod merchants came to the End of the Earth (which is the translation of the word "Yamal" from the Nenets language) even before that. From 1187, the Lower Ob belonged to the "subordinate regions" of Velikiy Novgorod. After its fall, it passed into the hands of Moscow princes; from 1502, the territorial reference - "Obdorskie" and "Yugorskie" - was added to the titles. In 1595, one of the Cossack detachments built a fort with the name of Obdorsk (today it is the capital city of YaNAO - Salekhard).
The inclusion of the northern lands into a strong Russian state had a very progressive impact. The population grew, and the administrative division changed. This region saw a development of trade in peltry-wares, the northern inconnu, fossil ivory, fish glue, quill, shelf fungus, boats, fur clothing, and other goods.
The Okrug is one of the leading regions of Russia in terms of hydrocarbons reserves, particularly of natural gas and oil.
Underground waters are contained in a huge artesian basin with an area of 3,000,000 square metres which includes reserves of thermal waters.
Since the old days Yamal has been known in the world for its premium furs. Animal breeding farms breed mink and fox. The main objects of trapping in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug are: sable, squirrel, muskrat, polar fox, fox, Siberian weasel, and ermine.
Population and labour force
The population of Salekhard, the capital of the Okrug, is 42,000.
Science and education
In 2007, 5 organisations in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug were involved in scientific research and development. Branches of large education establishments from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tyumen, and the Urals operate in Yamal. The majority of young locals in Yamal leave the Okrug to get education to large Russian cities.
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