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Social and natural resources
History and culture
People began to populate the Western Siberia 15-20 thousand years ago in the end of the ancient stone age. The population of people grew on the territory of the today Tyumen Oblast during the Mesolithic period (8-10 thousand years ago).
There are more than a thousand culture and leisure establishments in the Tyumen Oblast, 84 museums and 7 professional theatres. There are more than a thousand libraries open to general public; the number of books and magazines in these libraries exceeds 15 million.
The natural resources of the Tyumen Oblast include oil, peat, components for construction materials, low and high salt content mineral waters.
The region produces peat, commercial reserves of which are estimated at 37 billion cubic metres. As of today there are 495 discovered fields, 5 more are being developed. Large deposits of vivianite (almost 20% of the world's reserves) have been found in some peat fields; utilisation of this vivianite can satisfy the agricultural demand for phosphate fertilizers.
Sapropels, quartz sands, brick and bloating clays, limestone, and building stone are extracted on the territory of the region. More than 210 deposits of brick, bloating, and sandy clays have been discovered, the reserves amount to 631 million cubic metres; several deposits with the total reserve of 90 million cubic metres are being developed.
More than 44% of the land in the south of the Oblast is covered with forests of birch, pine, spruce, fir, aspen, cedar, and larch.
The South of the Oblast is rich with reserves of low and high salt content mineral waters. The underground water contains significant amounts of iodine and bromine. The largest iodine and bromine sources are Cherkashinskoye and Tobolskoye; these reserves have industrial significance.
Population and labour resources
The Oblast is highly urbanised: city and town dwellers amount to 77% of the population, countryside - 23%. Two thirds of the population is able-bodied, employable people.
Tyumen is one of the main educational centres of the Urals and Western Siberia. The city has 11 higher education establishments, the largest of which - the Tyumen State Oil and Gas University - teaches more than 34 thousand students.
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